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Friday, December 19, 2008

Kill ego and safe Love

Sometimes love is for a moment, sometimes love is for a lifetime. Sometimes a moment is a lifetime.
Once upon a time there was an island
where all the feelings lived
One day there was a storm in the sea
and the island was about to get drowned.
Every feeling was scared but Love
made a boat
to escape .
Every feeling boarded the boat.
Only 1 feeling was left.
Love got down to see who it was..

It was EGO
Love tried and tried but ego wasn't moving also.
the water was rising.
Every one asked love to leave him and come in the boat, but love was
made to love.
At last all the feelings escape and Love dies with ego on the island..


Love Dies because of EGO!

So, Kill Ego And Save Love.....
"Argument wins the situations but loses the person. So when argue with your loved ones, remember that situations is never more important than your loved ones"
Have a great day with your love ones....

Monday, October 13, 2008

GOOD DEFINITIONS - FUNNY

School:
A place where Papa pays and Son plays.

Life Insurance:
A contract that keeps you poor all your life so that you can die Rich.

Nurse:
A person who wakes u up to give you sleeping pills.

Marriage:
It's an agreement in which a man loses his bachelor degree and a woman gains her masters.

Tears:
The hydraulic force by which masculine willpower is defeated by feminine waterpower.

Lecture:
An art of transferring information from the notes of the Lecturer to the notes of the students without passing through 'the minds of either'

Conference:
The confusion of one man multiplied by the number present.

Compromise:
The art of dividing a cake in such a way that everybody believes he got the biggest piece.

Dictionary:
A place where success comes before work.

Conference Room:
A place where everybody talks, nobody listens and everybody disagrees later on.

Father:
A banker provided by nature.

Boss:
Someone who is early when you are late and late when you are early.

Politician:
One who shakes your hand before elections and your Confidence after.

Doctor:
A person who kills your ills by pills, and kills you by bills.

Classic:
Books, which people praise, but do not read.

Smile:
A curve that can set a lot of things straight.

Office:
A place where you can relax after your strenuous home life.

Yawn:
The only time some married men ever get to open their mouth.

Etc.:
A sign to make others believe that you know more than you actually do.

Committee:
Individuals who can do nothing individually and sit to decide that nothing can be done together.

Experience:
The name men give to their mistakes.

Atom Bomb:
An invention to end all inventions.

Philosopher:
A fool who torments himself during life, to be wise after death

VALUABLE WORDS


































































Sunday, August 17, 2008

TRULY AWESOME STORY









Next time you think life is hard "think again"
My name is Nick Vujicic and I was born without limbs and doctors have no medical explanation for this birth "defect". As you can imagine, I was faced with many challenges and obstacles. Their firstborn son had been born without limbs! There were no warnings or time to prepare themselves for it. The doctors we shocked and had no answers at all! There is still no medical reason why this had happened and Nick now has a Brother and Sister who were born just like any other baby.
I know that there is no such thing as luck, chance or coincidence that these "bad" things happen in our life. I had complete peace knowing that God won't let anything happen to us in our life unless God has a good purpose for it all I am now twenty-threeyears old and have completed a Bachelor of Commerce majoring in Financial Planning and Accounting. I am also a motivational speaker and love to go out and share my story and testimony wherever opportunities become available. I have developed talks to relate to and encourage students through topics that challenge today's teenagers. I am also a speaker in the corporate sector.
I have a passion for reaching out to youth and keep myself available for whatever God wants me to do, and wherever He leads, I follow. Writing several best-selling books has been one of my dreams and I hope to finish writing my first by the end of the year..
It will be called "No Arms, No Legs, No Worries!"
I believe that if you have the desire and passion to do something, and if it's God's will, you will achieve it in good time. As humans, we continually put limits on ourselves for no reason at all! What's worse is putting limits on God who can do all things. We put God in a "box". The awesome thing about the Power of God, is that if we want to do something for God, instead of focusing on our capability, concentrate on our availability for we know that it is God through us and we can't do anything without God. Once we make ourselves available for God's work, guess whose capabilities we rely on? God's!
The ONLY FEAR IN LIFE IS THAT I FORGET HOW GOD HAS LED ME IN THE PAST! And remember: WHEN YOU'RE BUSY JUDGING PEOPLE,

"YOU HAVE NO TIME TO LOVE THEM"

ABOUT MONEY


WITH MONEY YOU CAN
BUY A HOUSE,
BUT NOT A HOME.



WITH MONEY YOU CAN
BUY A CLOCK,
BUT NOT TIME.






WITH MONEY YOU CAN
BUY A BED,
BUT NOT SLEEP.






WITH MONEY YOU CAN
BUY A BOOK,


BUT NOT KNOWLEDGE.





WITH MONEY YOU CAN
SEE A DOCTOR,
BUT NOT GOOD HEALTH.






WITH MONEY YOU CAN
BUY A POSITION,
BUT NOT RESPECT.








WITH MONEY YOU CAN
BUY BLOOD,
BUT NOT LIFE.





WITH MONEY YOU CAN
BUY SEX,
BUT NOT LOVE.

BOSS vs ME

When I Take a long time to finish,
"I am slow"

When my boss takes a long time,
"He is thorough"

When I don't do it,
"I am lazy"

When my boss does not do it,
"He is busy"

When I do something without being told,
"I am trying to be smart"

When my boss does the same,
"He takes the initiative"

When I please... my Boss,
"I am apple polishing"

When my boss pleases his boss,
"He is cooperating"

When I make a mistake,
"You're an idiot"

When my boss makes a mistake,
"He's only humen"

When I am out of the office,
"I am wandering around"

When my boss is out of the office,
"He's on business"

When I am on a day off sick,
"I am always sick"

When my boss is a day off sick,
"he must be very ill"

When I apply for leave,
"I must be going for an interview"

When my boss applies for leave,
"It's because he's overworked"

When I do good,
"My boss never remembers"
When I do wrong,
"He never forgets"
thank you for reading

Thursday, August 7, 2008

Quite famous crime in Malaysia

Introduction


I am talk about the quite famous crime in Malaysia. These include pickpockets, snatch theft, house breaking, rape and sexual abuse kids. In our assignment, we discuss about what these crime is, how it happens, the effects or consequences and the way to prevent the crime.
Nowadays, our country is becoming more danger than before. When we go out at night, maybe we will meet a snatch theft that snatches our things or maybe someone will kidnap you too. It is really dangerous when going outside at night. But, I can tell you that while it is still day we can be in danger too. People are more horrible than ghost now. They will do anything just to get something. They will not care about the consequence. It is very horrible.
Crimes are happening around us every day. When we read the newspaper every day, they will be news is about crime, no matter what crime it is. So, we should appreciate our life and always stay alert when we are out from the house to prevent these crimes happen to our life.

House Breaking



The meaning of break in is a person goes in to a house silently and without asking the permission of the house owner and go in to the house. This person will steal anything that is expensive or valuable. Usually, they will go in where nobody is home.
This crime case is happen where the theft force opens the windows, grille gates or doors. The other way is cutting the padlocks, and grilles, or maybe gaining entry through neighboring house or shop. The most careless for the owner is gaining entry by using household tools left outside the house.
Lock all the doors and windows when you are not in the house. Do not left any valuable things in your house. The snatch theft usually is well prepared when they plan to break in someone house. So, everyone must prepare not to give a chance to let them break in our house. Tell your neighborhoods to always take alert and keep an eye on your house while you are away.
The punishment for this crime is to jail them not less than 18 months and not more than 10 years, and a fine. This punishment is only for day. While housebreaking and theft by night is to jail of not less than 2 years and not more than 14 years and a fine.

Child Abuse

Child abuse means that the child is abuse from his or her family without the children knowing. Most of the child abuse happens when they were still babies or abuse when they are in the child’s home or any other place. How does it happen?
Child abuse now is as common as it shocking. The child neglected by his or her family. Their family thinks that the birth of them is an unlucky or a bad thing. Usually child abuse happened when the child mother accidentally pregnant and they have no ability to take care of them, so they decide to leave them and abandon them. Their parents wish to give birth to them but unfortunately they can’t raise them up. The main reason is because economy problem. They do not wish to let their child suffer so they decide to abuse them, neglect them.
The most pity is the child actually. They do not have any people to accompany them and the abuse will lead them to a dark end with no hope. Their family thinks that abuse them is the best way to let them survive but they are wrong. The caring of the family is the most important to the child. They are just only a little kid which does not know anything. All they need is just the love of the family.

Pick Pockets




What is a pickpocket? Pickpocket means that it is a thief who steals from pockets without anyone knowing. Usually, this crime is not violent and it is an easy way to get some extra money without hurting the victims. Pick pockets usually happened in a place where there are crowded or a place where are full of people. Even if suspected, a pickpocket can clam ignorance and just say they bumped into the person. These pick pockets are hard to catch unless you have the evidence.
There are all sorts of pick pockets in the world. In Malaysia, pick pockets usually happened in the bus, lrt or train because these public transport is full of people when morning and evening. This is a chance where pick pockets can steal from you. When the pick pockets discover you carry some money and valuable things like a brand new style cell phone, they will steal it when you are not paying attention and the thief can disappear into crowds easily.
Pick pockets like easy targets. A skilled pick pocket can hit almost any pocket, but they prefer easy targets. Open bags, outside pockets of a backpack or shoulder bag, these will cause their attention. For example, you put your wallet in a back pocket when crowded or full of people, I am sure that you can’t find your wallet when you go back home. Other than that, please do not think that pick pockets is only for adult but sometimes a kid will do a pick pocket as well. So, be very careful when you are outside the house. Only you can protect yourselves.

RAPE

The meaning of rape means it is an unwanted sexual intercourse. The victims are forced but not volunteer to do so. Sometimes, rape also called sexual assault, it can happen to both men and woman of any age.
Rape is about power but not sex. A rapist uses actual force or violence to force the victims to have sex with them. The rapist is taking control over another human being. Some of them are using drugs to take away a person’s ability or tie them up. No matter how it happened, rape is frightening and horrible.
A people who have been raped before, they need comfort, care and a way to recover. They will feel depressed and alone. They need friends and the support of the family. The rapist is such a horrible person. They are irresponsible. After they get their so call happiness, they ran away just like a mouse. This crime is seriously affecting the woman. In Malaysia, the victims usually will be killed by the rapist. Nowadays, human being is more and more horrible. We are human but some of them acting like wild animal. Why? The world is changing. People do not care about the consequence anymore.
Surely, rape is not about passion and has nothing to do with love. Rape is only an act of aggression and violence only. There is nothing more but just this. We must take good care of ourselves and stay alert.

Snatch Theft

In Malaysia, snatch theft is a very general crime case. Snatch theft is a criminal act of forcefully stealing from a person while employing rob-and-run tactics. It is typical for two thieves to work together and ride a motorcycle to make theft escape easier. A person drives the vehicle while another does the act of theft itself. However, some of the snatch thief works alone or do not use a motorcycle to rob. They just walk closely to the victims and snatch their handbags away.
Lately, some instances of snatch theft have caused fatalities through subsequent acts of violence. They not only wish to get the money but sometimes they do hurt people by forcing them to give the theft money. Nowadays, there are so many snatch thefts around us. It is frightening. This crime happens when the snatch thefts approaching victim when they are not alert and no people around, then snatch the handbag or necklace or cell phones from the behind of the victim. Through this action, the victim maybe falls down and hurt them.
If the theft has been caught, he will be jail term which may extend to three years or a fine or both. The other one is when a person convicted of theft with assault or criminal force is liable to a jail term of not less than one year and not more than seven years and caning. This is the consequence of what the theft did.

Vehicle Theft

Vehicle theft, or sometimes we call motor vehicle theft, is the criminal act of stealing or attempting to steal a motor vehicle, including a car, a bus, motorcycle or any other vehicle. These thefts sometimes maybe steal the things inside the car or steal the whole car.
The theft either by breaking and entry, followed by hotwiring or other tampering methods to start the vehicle to steal it. The theft also takes the vehicle by force or threat of force from its owner or operator of the car. In most places, this is the most serious form of theft, since assault also occurs. The operators and passengers are forced from the vehicle while the thief drives it away or maybe the passengers are forced to remain in the vehicle as hostages. This usually happen when a child is left in the vehicle or a person is having a nap and the theft decide to steal the car.
Mostly, the victims report as soon as the theft left or discovers their car has lost. Vehicles stolen are less likely to be returned to their owners, since they have been dismantled, and some of the parts have either been sold as replacement parts or built into new vehicles. The vehicles most frequently stolen are Toyota Camry, Honda Accord and some expensive cars which cost a lot. But, nowadays, except the old type pattern and broke car, the theft will steal any model of car just to get some money.

Crime rate of Kuala Lumpur


City CID chief Senior Assistant Commissioner (II) Ku Chin Wah said that the Kuala Lumpur crime rate dropped by 7.1% last year compared to 2006. The number of cases reported last year was 29,473 while there were 31,740 cases in 2006.
The solving rate for violent crimes and property crimes improved to 54.7% and 33.2% respectively. Snatch theft cases decreased by 999 cases while general property theft cases dropped by 2,308 cases. 37.5% of serious crime cases were solved.
However, violent crimes such as rape and unarmed gang robbery spiked up last year. Unarmed gang robbery saw a 95% increase, the largest jump which police attributed to a reclassification exercise conducted in October 2007. Amendments were made to Section 391 of the Penal Code, which now defines gang robbery as robbery committed by two or more people, instead of five or more people previously.
The number of rape cases increased from 147 in 2006 to 228 last year, up 55%. As rapists usually know their victims, the solving rate of such cases was 91.2%.
Motorcycle and car thefts increased by 667 cases, rising to a total of 9,995 cases. House break-ins have the biggest increase in the property crimes index with 2,489 cases last year, up 448 from 2006. (According to The Star Online, Cops, Crime Rate down 7-percent)

The causes of crimes

Poverty:

People suffer from the financial problems like lost in their investments. They borrow money from illegal financial company such as “along” to pay their debts. When they have no money to pay for “along”, so they choose to do crimes to get the fast money.
People lose jobs because of the economy unstable. Nowadays, people hard to find job in the society.
They want to get the money easily and they do not want to work to earn money because they are lazy to work. So they do crimes to get the money easily and quickly.

Unhealthy lifestyle

People will lose their rational after taking the drug and alcohol. They do the crimes in unconsciousness circumstance.
They watched X-rated movies since they are young; they are under influence of adults. They will learn from the movies and do the crimes like rape when they are sexual needed.
They watched too much aggressive and violence movies. They will get the media impact immediately and learn from the movies. They will do crimes when somebody makes them angry.
People do crimes when they felt so stressful. They do crimes to reduce their pressure because crimes can satisfy their need. They enjoy other people suffering.

Family

Some criminals come from single family. They are lack of love because no people regulate and love them.
Parents do not play the role models. Parents are the model for the kids. Kids will learn from their parents. They will cope what their parents do.
Parents are not caring and concern them. Parents only work to earn money. They always neglect their children. Parents thought they only need give their kids money can satisfy their needs. Parents do not know what their kids need. Their kids need their concern and caring.
Parents not give appropriate education to the kids since they are young. Parents do not teach their kids what is right or wrong.

Friends influence

People know some friends that have no good personalities such as smoking, always skip class, not respect to teacher and no discipline.
Friends influence them and ask them do the crimes together. They are easily get influence from friends so they will obey their friends. They will follow what their friends ask them to do.
Some people will do crimes because they scare their friends will look down on them. They do not want their friends look down on them so they do crimes when their friends ask them to do.

Effects and consequences of crime

We discuss about the crime early and found out that if these crimes still happen, the effects and consequences of crimes will be more serious and most important the people here will be in very danger that can easily lost their life.
The first effects of crime are the people will worry about their life everyday and worry everyday when they go out from the house. They dare not to go out because of crime they will maybe get hurt or die. Thieves nowadays are cruel and bad. When they get what they want, they would not let you go easily but will kill you or hurt you because they scare the victims will recognize them and report to the police.
The next effects or consequence of crime is about girls. Girls are weak and not strong. When they face crime like rape, they will have side effect. They will maybe afraid of anyone and will not talk to anyone anymore. Some girls can face the situation but most of the girls can’t. The victims will remember what happened to her before and they will not forget this incident. They will suffer forever because of this incident. Some will be insane or psychology problems.
The third effect of crime is the resident of Malaysia will not trust this country or the police anymore. They will feel that the police here can’t even protect the resident of Malaysia. The people here do not have the confident to the police. This will cause the name of Malaysia drop and no tourist will come to Malaysia anymore because here is dangerous. Then, our economy will drop and our country will slowly going down


How to Prevent the Crimes

Break In

Firstly, make sure that all your doors are securely locked. Besides that, locked yourDoor every time when you go out, even for a few minutes. Moreover, make sure your porch and all entrance or other areas are well lighted. Other than that, do not hide your keys under the doormat or in a flowerpot, because there are the most obvious places and also install an alarm system for summoning emergency help as long as you can.

Snatch Theft

Avoid carrying excess cash and displaying it in public. You can use your charge card or credit card for purchases. Besides that, sling your handbag in front of you, so that you can keep eye on it and make sure that is properly fastened or zipped. More than that checks your wallet or handbag immediately if someone bumps into you. Do not be fooled by strangers who try to distract you by creating a commotion or offering to help to clean to your soiled clothing and try not to doze off in public transport or leave you belongings unattended.

Rape

Rape is a violent crime that is something you or others should not experience. However, when a rape occurs, you should not accept it as “fate” or bad luck as most cases can be prevented when you are alert to your surroundings especially in dark and quiet places. Other than that, you may portray confidence while working and make sure other female passengers accompany you when traveling by public transport. Moreover, you should inform your family about your plans and where you are going. However, you also can learn some martial arts or self-defense for your own protection.

Vehicle Theft

Although it is increasingly difficult to prevent vehicle theft by professional thieves’ facts indicate that such crimes can be prevented as many cases or theft are carried out by amateurs and can be prevented easily when you park your car at well-lit areas. Besides that, lock your car doors as soon as you get into your car and also ensure that all the doors are locked before leaving your vehicle. Moreover, do not hand over your car key to a jockey or remove the faceplate or CD player when leaving your car.

Sexual Abuse of Children

Children are innocent and gullible. They are without doubt very precious to you. It is therefore important to prevent them from falling prey o tragedy. Thus, make sure you teach your children to know their bodies, and the proper names of their private parts. Other than that, let your children know that no one’s have the right to touch them without their permission. Except it, urge them to tell you anything out of the ordinary. After that, teach them not to open the home doors to strangers and must be attentive and listen to what they say....

Conclusion

After all of you know and understand the knowledge about crimes, we hope that all of you will be alert at anywhere, anytime and especially girls, we all must always be confident and better to do not let anyone to harm us. It is also a way to avoid those rapists and snatch theft to hurt us too.
anyway we do teach you all some methods to prevent these crimes happen to us. We hope that our methods can be useful in future time and the resident of Malaysia can remember that in your mind, so that it will not easily happen to you. I can say that if you trust yourselves better than you trust other people or the police.

Recommendation

First, police should reinforce their cruises especially the places that always happen the crimes cases. It will help to decrease the opportunity of the crimes cases happen.
Second, people should avoid bring too much money when they are go out. They also should avoid wear too many jewelers because it will attract the criminal’s attention.
Third, people should not be alone when they at outside. They should find somebody such as family, friends or partner when they want to go out. It is because go out alone is very dangerous.
Fourth, people should report to the police when they found somebody is doubted or got some strangers tail them. They should call the 999 immediately to make the report. thanks for read

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Monday, August 4, 2008

HOW TO STAY YOUNG

George Carlin's Views on Aging

Do you realize that the only time in our lives when we like to get old is when we're kids? If you're less than 10 years old, you're so excited about aging that you think in fractions. 'How old are you?' 'I'm four and a half!' You're never thirty-six and a half. You're four and a half, going on five! That's the key You get into your teens, now they can't hold you back. You jump to the next number, or even a few ahead. 'How old are you?' 'I'm gonna be 16!' You could be 13, but hey, you're gonna be 16! And then the greatest day of your life . You become 21. Even the words sound like a ceremony . YOU BECOME 21 YESSSS!!! But then you turn 30. Oooohh, what happened there? Makes you sound like bad milk! He TURNED; we had to throw him out. There's no fun now, you're Just a sour-dumpling. What's wrong? What's changed? You BECOME 21, you TURN 30, then you're PUSHING 40. Whoa! Put on the brakes, it's all slipping away. Before you know it, you REACH 50 and your dreams are gone.But wait!!! You MAKE it to 60. You didn't think you would! So you BECOME 21, TURN 30, PUSH 40, REACH 50 and MAKE it to 60.You've built up so much speed that you HIT 70! After that it's a day-by-day thing; you HIT Wednesday! You get into your 80's and every day is a complete cycle; you HIT lunch; you TURN 4:30 ; you REACH bedtime. And it doesn't end there. Into the 90s, you start going backwards; 'I Was JUST 92.'Then a strange thing happens. If you make it over 100, you become a little kid again. 'I'm 100 and a half!' May you all make it to a healthy 100 and a half!!

HOW TO STAY YOUNG
1. Throw out nonessential numbers. This includes age, weight and height. Let the doctors worry about them. That is why you pay 'them
2. Keep only cheerful friends. The grouches pull you down.
3. Keep learning. Learn more about the computer, crafts, gardening, whatever. Never let the brain idle. 'An idle mind is the devil's workshop' And the devil's name is Alzheimer.
4. Enjoy the simple things.
5. Laugh often, long and loud. Laugh until you gasp for breath
6. The tears happen. Endure, grieve, and move on. The only person, who is with us our entire life, is ourselves. Be ALIVE while you are alive.
7. Surround yourself with what you love , whether it's family, pets, keepsakes, music, plants, hobbies, whatever. Your home is your refuge.
8. Cherish your health: If it is good, preserve it. If it is unstable, improve it. If it is beyond what you can improve, get help.
9. Don't take guilt trips. Take a trip to the mall, even to the next county; to a foreign country but NOT to where the guilt is.
10. Tell the people you love that you love them, at every opportunity.
AND ALWAYS REMEMBER :Life is not measured by the number of breaths we take,but by the moments that take our breath away.

History of Prime Minister Pakistan



{ Liaquat Ali Khan / Khawaja Nazimuddin / Muhammad Ali Bogra / Chaudhry Muhammad Ali / Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy / Ibrahim Ismail Chundrigar / Feroz Khan Noon / Mohammad Ayub Khan / Nurul Amin / Zulfikar Ali Bhutto / Muhammad Khan Junejo / Benazir Bhutto / Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi / Nawaz Sharif / Balakh Sher Mazari / Nawaz Sharif / Moeenuddin Ahmad Qureshi / Benazir Bhutto / Malik Meraj Khalid / Nawaz Sharif / Pervez Musharraf / Zafarullah Khan Jamali / Chaudhry Shujaat Hussain / Shaukat Aziz / Muhammad Mian Soomro/ Yousaf Raza Gillani ........ }

From 1958 until 1973, no person held the title of Prime Minister due to martial law.
The office was again suspended from July 5, 1977 until March 24, 1985 due to martial law.
The office was again suspended from June 9, 1988 - August 17, 1988.
¹On October 12, 1999, Pervez Musharraf overthrew Nawaz Sharif, and took the title of Chief Executive. On June 20, 2001, he took title of the President of Pakistan. Pervez Musharraf was chief executive from (October 12, 1999 to November 23, 2002 (de facto till 14 Oct 1999, de jure from 14 Oct 1999).
Elections were held on October 10, 2002 leading to the return of the position of Prime Minister

Friday, August 1, 2008

Faith to do the Impossible

"Every thing is possible"

Dear Friends, we are sure to face with impossibilities in our daily life, but God loves to carry us through, and making what’s impossible become possible. You see, It was impossible for Abraham and Sarah to have a child in their old age, but God made it possible. It was impossible for Moses to lead the Israelites walking across the Red Sea, but God made it possible. It was impossible for Joshua to take down the whole city of Jericho, but God made it possible. It was impossible for David, a shepherd boy to kill the giant Goliath, but God made it possible. It was impossible for human to die and rise again, but Jesus made it possible. It may be impossible for us to be the best students scoring straight A’s, but God will make it possible. It may be impossible for us to be the best employee or best business man in our field, but God will make it possible. But before you can do the impossible through God, there are two keys you must have. Turn to your neighbor and say
“two keys you must have”

Key No,1:-

To See the Invisible

Now what is invisible means what our eyes cannot see. So what do I mean by seeing the invisible? Does that mean o suddenly you have X ray vision, o you can now see the spirits in the invisible realm, you can see heaven and angels flying and singing….Not like that! Turn to your neighbor and say “not like that”. So how do we see the invisible? Although our natural eyes cannot see what is invisible, but our spiritual eyes can see what is invisible, which is the eyes of faith. The bible says that “Faith is the substance of things hoped for, and the evidence of things not seen.” Notice that faith is the EVIDENCE of things NOT SEEN. So what is the evidence since you have not seen it? The evidence is the vision we have in your heart that the things not seen, the invisible, is going to happen and coming to past, because we can visualize it through your spiritual eyes, the eyes of faith. We can visualize the end results of the invisible things we hoped for, in our heart.
Let me read to you Genesis 15: 5-6 ~ Then God brought Abraham outside and said, “Look now toward heaven and, count the stars if you are able to number them.” And Abraham believed in the LORD, and the LORD accounted it to Abraham for righteousness.
Here Abraham was longing and hoping to have a son, but he was old and Sarah was barren at that time. But God wants Abraham to visualize that he will be father of many nations and his descendants will be more than the stars in the sky. So God wants Abraham to see what was invisible at that time, God wants him to visualize it through the eyes of faith. And what happened then, God gave Abraham a son, and from the son came the whole nation of Israel, and God’s promise to Abraham came to past. Hallelujah!!!
Last year, there is a time when I was desperate to have a new computer table. But I didn’t have the money to buy it. Somehow, I still went shopping for it; and when I finally found the computer table, I just lay hands on it and prayed. From that moment on, I have the confidence, the faith that I’ll have it, even though it’s still invisible, because I begin to visualize it, I can feel that it’s in my room already. Lo and behold, two weeks later, God answered my prayer. Hallelujah!!! Come on! Somebody give the LORD a big clap!


Key No,2:-

To perform the impossible

Now, if you can see the invisible, you can perform the impossible. In fact, you must perform the impossible, because faith without deeds is as good as dead. And here’s how Jesus performed the impossible.
In Matthew 14: 16-21 ~ Here Jesus asked his disciples to feed the five thousand men that followed Jesus that day. But his disciples said to Him, “We have here only five loaves and two fish.” Jesus said, “Bring them here to Me.” Then He commanded the multitudes to sit down on the grass. And He took the five loaves and the two fish, and looking up to heaven, He blessed and broke and gave to the loaves to the disciples; and the disciples gave to the multitudes. So they all ate and were filled, and they took up twelve baskets full of the fragments that remained. Now those who had eaten were about five thousand men, besides women and children.
So what is impossible here are five loaves of bread and two fish to feed five thousand, and yet Jesus speak forth His Word by faith, and it all became possible. All we have to do is to see the invisible, and then perform the impossible.










Thursday, July 24, 2008

Introduction to PDA


PDA (Personal Digital Assistant)


PDA, known as personal digital assistant broad wide is a mobile device that provides a lot of personal organizers function such as calendar, appointment book, address book, calculator, and notepad. PDA can be used as is a
handheld computer, also known as small or palmtop computers…
Modern PDAs also have both color screens and audio capabilities, allowing the user to use it as a mobile phone too. PDAs are used to save information that can be accessed at any time and anyplace. PDAs also offer other application such as Real One Player – a media software that is use to run songs and movies, not only that, PDA has a touch screen for users to enter data, a memory card slot for data storage and it have IrDA-(known as Infrared Ray), Bluetooth and/or WiFi. However, many PDAs may not have a touch screen, so the user will opt to use alphanumerical keypad, a directional pad and either the scroll keypad or a thumb keyboard for entering the input purposes. Connected PDAs also characteristically include E-mail and Web support
Most modern PDAs have the following features as a minimum:-


! Colour screen

! Stylus pen

! Standard software: calendar, address book, notepad and more

! Sound

! Large memory (no less than 16MB) and the memory can also be expanded by using external memory-memory cards as PDAs provide memory card slots.

! Wireless link (IrDA, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi)

! PC link

! Enormous range of software that can be installed to the PDA.


Text input is usually done in one of four ways:-


Virtual keyboard – when the keyboard is shown on the screen, which is the touch screen. The entering of data can be done by tapping letters or numerical character on the screen.
External keyboard – this keyboard can be connected via USB port or via Bluetooth
Word or letter recognition- when letters or words are written on the screen, the system will try to identify the letters or words written and will then be activating the texts or words thru text field.
Stroke recognition-a clear set of strokes represents the various letters needed. The user will learn how to draw these strokes on the screen. The strokes are often the simplified character shapes to make them easier to remember.
Nowadays Blackberry and Treo-(both are the PDA brand) have full keyboard and scroll wheels to smooth the progress of data entry and navigation. Meanwhile, Apple i phone and i touch uses a different kind of input by including a new user’s interface and a technology called Multi Touch. These days PDA is equip with a memory card slot unlike the PDA in the good old days. The memory card slot is used to slot in either SD (Secure Digital) or a Compact flash card. The card is used to store any information or data that is saved by the user when the PDA internal memory is full. Most of the PDAs nowadays have Bluetooth wireless connectivity; Bluetooth is popular in these days for PDA and other mobile devices. It can be used to connect keyboards, headsets, GPS and many other accessories, as well as sending files between PDAs and other mobile devices that is bluetooth enabled too.Many mid-range and superior PDAs have Wi-Fi/WLAN/802.11-connectivity, used for connecting to Wi-Fi hotspots or wireless networks. Older PDAs predominantly have an IrDA (infrared) port; however the modern models of PDA seldom have the technology, as it is slowly being phased out for Bluetooth and Wi-Fi. PDA has a important function which is called the synchronization. Most PDAs come with the ability to synchronize to a PC. This is done through the synchronization software provided with the handheld, such as HotSync Manager, which comes with Palm OS handhelds, Microsoft ActiveSync for older versions of Windows or Windows Mobile Device Center on Windows Vista, which comes with Windows Mobile handhelds. The synchronizing function that is done from the software also prevents the loss of information stored on the device in case it is lost, stolen, or destroyed. Another benefit gain from this function is that data input is usually a lot quicker on a PC, since text input via a touch screen is still not quite favorable. Transferring data to a PDA via the computer is therefore a lot quicker than having to manually input all data on the handheld device. PDAs are also used during educations, sports, automobile navigation and for the people with disabilities and more.
PDA is used during education as a vital tool as mobile technology has become very common; it is no astonishment that personal computing has become a very important learning tool by this time. Educational institutes have commenced a trend of integrating PDAs into their teaching practices which is also known as mobile learning. With the capabilities of PDAs, teachers are now able to provide a joint and learning experience and knowledge for their students. PDAs and handheld devices are recently allowed by certain educational institutions for digital note- taking and sometimes the notes are sent to their PDA. By allowing students to have this kind of note taking, this has increased the students’ capability by allowing individuals to have spell check, amend and modify their
notes or is best known as e notes. Educators are currently able to distribute course material through the use of the internet connectivity or thru Bluetooth file sharing function from the PDA, not only the educators are doing it, nowadays, textbook publishers have launch and begun to release e- books which can be directly uploaded to the PDA. This has lessen the burden of students that is used to carrying heavy books around and this method helps to reduce the sawing of trees, which means less trees are been sawed down as less papers are being used now to produce books. Simple programs such as dictionaries, thesaurus and word processing software are downloaded to the PDA to ease the students from bring any heavy dictionaries and reference books.
PDAs are also used in the form of sports as glider pilots-(light aircraft designed to fly without the engine) pilots As PDAs is used for pre- flight preparation and to help out on the assisting of the navigation as the PDAs are GPS-(Global Positioning System) enabled to generate map displays that shows the tracks to the turn points, airspace hazards and etc. PDAs is also used by sportsman or athletes with some music enthusiasm as they can play songs while doing their favourite workouts and activities. PDAs can be used by road rally enthusiasts for calculating distance, speed, time, and GPS direction-finding as well as solo navigation.
PDAs help and give assistance for those drivers that don’t recognize the route to a place as PDA is equipped with GPS( Global Positioning System), it can be used to view the traffic condition, the easiest and fastest way to reach a destination by showing the users the road conditions using 2D or 3D displays. PDAs offer partial degrees of accessibility for people with differing abilities, based on the particular device and service. People with vision, hearing, mobility, and speech impairments may be able to use PDAs on a limited basis, and this may be enhanced by the addition of accessibility software (e.g. speech recognition).
Many PDAs run using different type and variation of architecture, although most PDAs are usually use the symbol by the Intel Xscale trademark; it is usually surrounded by some of RISC microprocessors that are widely used by PDAs and other mobile devices.

The currently major PDA operating systems are:-


! Palm OS - owned by PalmSource


! Windows Mobile Professional and Classic for use on Pocket PCs, (based on the Windows CE kernel) - owned by Microsoft


! iPhone OS - owned by Apple Inc.



! Many operating systems based on the Linux kernel - free (not owned by any company) These include

Familiar (comes in three types: GPE, Opie and barebone)


Ångström, a descendent of OpenZaurus

Intimate (for PDAs with an exceedingly large amount of memory)


! Symbian OS (formerly EPOC) owned by Motorola, Panasonic, Nokia, Samsung, Siemens and Sony Ericsson……………

There are some popular brands for PDAs which is the Blackberry, HP iPAQ, i Pod touch, i phone,dopod, Htc and more.

The benefits and drawback of the device to the user…

Benefits of PDA to the user…

! PDAs can be used anytime and anywhere.

* Ease the burden of students as they can now bring fewer books.

* They can have their notes in the electronic form thus they can also have their spelling check, notes amended, and lots of things done including homework on their PDAs.

* They can share their e notes with their friends with just a click- meaning sending notes thru file sharing functions and / or with Bluetooth.

* They can send push e mail to their educators and friends about their notes.


* They can use the GPS function available in their PDA to search for the fastest and easiest ways to a destination

* It is used to store contacts and information for those who has lots of friends, clients and colleagues contact numbers. This will help them build a larger scale of communication with others

* They can use the PDA as their MP3 player too, but with a twist that they don’t need their MP3 player, they just need their PDA as PDA is equipped with Real One Player for the users to plays song and watch movies too.


Drawback of PDA to the user...

* Users (students) tend to rely on the dictionary and self check function to correct their grammatical mistake for their homework.


* Students use PDA to send and share answers during exam and chatting and gossiping with others while having exam.


* Users rely too much on the GPS function available on their PDA and can’t even memorize or remember the route to go from one destination to the other.

The Evolution of Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)

A personal digital assistant (PDA) is a handheld computer which is also known as small or palmtop computer. Newer PDAs nowadays have both colour screen and audio capabilities, enabling them to be used as mobile phone (smartphone), web browser or even portable media player. Most PDAs have access to the Internet, intranet or extranet via Wi-Fi or Wireless Wide-Area Networks (WWANs). Besides that, most PDAs also apply the touch screen technology.
PDA is created evolving from the innovation from mobile devices with computer technology to provide convenience to the users. Hence, it is actually a mobile phone with added computer enabled functions. Therefore, the history of PDA is actually similar with the history of the creation of mobile phone. In December 1947, Douglas H. Ring and W. Rae Young, Bell Labs engineers, proposed hexagonal cells for mobile phones. Philip T. Porter, also of Bell Labs, proposed that the cell towers be at the corners of the hexagons rather than the centers and have directional antennas that would transmit or receive in 3 directions into 3 adjacent hexagon cells. The technology did not exist then and the frequencies had not yet been allocated. Cellular technology was undeveloped until the 1960s, when Richard H. Frenkiel and Joel S. Engel of Bell Labs developed the electronics. One of the first truly successful public commercial mobile phone networks was the ARP network in Finland, launched in 1971. However, ARP is sometimes viewed as a zero generation (0G) cellular network which is being slightly above previous proprietary and limited coverage networks.
The first generation (1G): The first commercial launch of cellular telecoms was launched by NTT in Tokyo, Japan in 1979. In 1981, the NMT system was launched in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. This was the first mobile phone technology that allowed international use of the mobile phone which also known as “roaming”. The first handheld mobile phone in the US market was the Motorola DynaTAC 8000X, which received approval in 1983. Mobile phones began to proliferate through the 1980s with the introduction of “cellular” phones based on cellular networks with multiple base stations located relatively close to each other. At this time analog, transmission was in use in all systems. Soon, Motorola introduced the first truly portable, handheld phone. These systems (NMT, AMPS, TACS, RTMI, C-Netz and Radiocom 2000) later became known as first generation (1G) mobile phones.
Second generation (2G): In the 1990s, second generation (2G) mobile phone systems such as GSM, IS-136 (TDMA), iDEN and IS-95 (CDMA) began to be introduced. The first pre-commercial digital cellular phone call was made in the United States in 1990. In 1991, the first GSM network (Radiolinja) opened in Finland. 2G phone systems were characterized by digital circuit switched transmission and the introduction of advanced and fast phone to network signaling. Generally, the frequencies used by 2G systems in Europe were higher though with some overlap, for example the 900 MHz frequency range was used for both 1G and 2G systems in Europe and so such 1G systems were rapidly closed down to make space for 2G systems. In America, the IS-54 standard was deployed in the same band as AMPS and displaced some of the existing analog channels. Coinciding with the introduction of 2G systems was a trend away from the
larger “brick” phones toward tiny 100-200g hand-held devices, which soon became the norm. This change was possible through technological improvements such as more
advanced batteries and more energy-efficient electronics, but also was largely related to the higher density of cellular sites caused by increasing usage levels which decreased the demand for high transmit power to reach distant towers for customers to be satisfied. The second generation introduced a new variant to communication, as SMS text messaging became possible, initially on GSM networks and eventually on all digital networks. The first machine-generated SMS message was sent in the UK in 1991. The first person-to-person SMS text message was sent in Finland in 1993. Soon SMS became the communication method of preference for the youth. Today in many advanced markets the general public prefers sending text messages to placing voice calls. 2G also introduced the ability to consume media content on mobile phones, when Radiolinja (now Elisa) in Finland introduced the downloadable ringing tone as paid content. Finland was also the first country where advertising appeared on the mobile phone when a free daily news headline service on SMS text messaging was launched in 2000, sponsored by advertising.
Third generation (3G): Not long after the introduction of 2G networks, projects began to develop third generation (3G) systems. Inevitably there were many different standards with different contenders pushing their own technologies. Quite differently from 2G systems, however, the meaning of 3G has been standardized in the IMT-2000 standardization processing. This process did not standardize on a technology, but rather on a set of requirements (2 Mbit/s maximum data rate indoors, 384 kbit/s outdoors, for example). At that point, the vision of a single unified worldwide standard broke down and several different standards have been introduced. The first pre-commercial trial network with 3G was launched by NTT DoCoMo in Japan in the Tokyo region in May 2001. NTT DoCoMo launched the first commercial 3G network on October 1, 2001, using the WCDMA technology. In 2002 the first 3G networks on the rival CDMA2000 1xEV-DO technology were launched by SK Telecom and KTF in South Korea, and Monet in the USA. Monet has since gone bankrupt. By the end of 2002, the second WCDMA network was launched in Japan by Vodafone KK (now Softbank). In March the first European launches of 3G were in Italy and the UK by the Three/Hutchison group, on WCDMA. 2003 saw a further 8 commercial launches of 3G, six more on WCDMA and two more on the EV-DO standard. During the development of 3G systems, 2.5G systems such as CDMA 2000 1x and GPRS were developed as extensions to existing 2G networks. These provide some of the features of 3G without fulfilling the promised high data rates or full range of multimedia services. CDMA2000-1X delivers theoretical maximum data speeds of up to 307 kbit/s. Just beyond these is the EDGE system which in theory covers the requirements for 3G system, but is so narrowly above these that any practical system would be sure to fall short. By the end of 2007 there were 295 Million subscribers on 3G networks worldwide, which reflected 9% of the total worldwide subscriber base. About two thirds of these are on the WCDMA standard and one third on the EV-DO standard. The 3G telecoms services generated over 120 Billion dollars of revenues during 2007 and at many markets the majority of new phones activated were 3G phones. In Japan and South Korea the market no longer supplies phones of the second generation. Earlier in the decade there were doubts about whether 3G might happen, and
also whether 3G might become a commercial success. By the end of 2007 it had become clear that 3G was a reality and was clearly on the path to become a profitable venture.
The first PDA is considered to be the CASIO PF-3000 released in May 1983. GO Corp. was also pioneering in the field. The term was first used on January 7, 1992 by Apple Computer CEO John Sculley at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas, Nevada, referring to the Apple Newton. PDAs are sometimes referred as Palms, Palm Pilot or Palm Tops.
Today, most PDAs are well-equipped with newer technology and with more added advantages. A typical PDA has a touch screen for entering data, a memory card slot for data storage and at least one of the following for connectivity: IrDA, Bluetooth or WiFi. However, many PDAs (typically those used primarily as telephones) may not have a touch screen, using softkeys, a directional pad and some sort of note program. Connected PDAs also typically include e-mail and Web support. Many original PDAs, such as the Apple Newton and the Palm Pilot, featured touch screens for user interaction, having only a few buttons usually reserved for shortcuts to often used programs. Touch screen PDAs, including Windows Pocket PC devices, usually have a detachable stylus that can be used on the touch screen. Interaction is then done by tapping the screen to activate buttons or menu choices, and dragging the stylus to, for example, highlight.


Text input is usually done in one of four ways:-

* Using a virtual keyboard, where a keyboard is shown on the touch screen. Input is done by tapping letters on the screen.

* Using external keyboard or chorded keyboard connected by USB or Bluetooth.

* Using letter or word recognition, where letters or words are written on the touch screen and then translated to letters in the currently activated text field.

* Stroke recognition (termed Graffiti by Palm). In this system a predefined set of strokes represent the various character shapes to make them easier to remember.

PDAs for business use, including the BlackBerry and Treo, have full keyboards and scroll wheels or thumb wheels to facilitate data entry and navigation, in addition to supporting touch-screen input. There are also full-size foldable keyboards available that plug directly, or use wireless technology to interface with the PDA and allow for normal typing. BlackBerry has additional functionality, such as push-based email and applications. Newer PDAs, such as the Apple iPhone and iPod Touch include new user interfaces using other means of input. The iPhone and iPod touch uses a technology called Multi-touch.
The evolution of PDAs today is far different from the day it was first invented. PDAs nowadays are being used in many aspects to make our life easier. In automobile navigation, many PDAs are used in car kits and are fitted with differential Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers to provide realtime automobile navigation.PDAs are
increasingly being fitted as standard on new cars. Many systems can also display traffic conditions, dynamic routing and roadside mobile radar guns. Popular software in Europe and in America for this functionality are TomTom, Garmin, iGO and others showing road conditions and 2D or 3D environments. Meanwhile, businesses and government organizations have relied upon rugged PDAs for many years known as enterprise digital assistants (EDAs) for mobile data applications. Typical applications include supply chain management in warehouses, package delivery, route accounting, medical treatment and record keeping in hospitals, facilities maintenance and management, parking enforcement, access control and security, capital asset maintenance, meter reading by utilities, and "wireless waitress" applications in restaurants and hospitality venues. A common feature of EDAs are the integration of Data Capture devices like Bar Code, RFID and Smart Card Readers. In medicine, PDAs have been shown to aid diagnosis and drug selection and some studies have concluded that their use by patients to record symptoms improves the effectiveness of communication with hospitals during follow-up. The first landmark study in testing the effectiveness of PDAs in a medical setting was conducted at the Brigham & Women's Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospitals in affiliation with Harvard Medical School. Led by the team of Steven Labkoff, MD and Sandeep Shah, the Constellation project used Apple's Newton (first PDA in the market) to cater to the demands of the medical professionals. Constellation's objective was to test how clinicians in various medical environments (wired vs un wired) would use medical reference books on a hand-held device. The study validated the hypothesis that PDAs with medical content would be used to a greater degree (>40% more often) in unwired environments. Today, the company evolved from the effort Skyscape offers a wide range of resources including drug information, treatment options, guidelines, evidence based information and journal summaries including the drug & safety alerts. Other entrants include Epocrates and ABX guide, which supply drug databases, treatment information and relevant news in formats specific to mobile devices and services such as AvantGo translate medical journals into readable formats and provide updates from journals. WardWatch organizes medical records to remind doctors making ward rounds of information such as the treatment regimens of patients and programs. Finally, Pendragon and Syware provide tools for conducting research with mobile devices, and connecting to a central server allowing the user to enter data into a centralized database using their PDA. Additionally, Microsoft Visual Studio and Sun Java provide programming tools for developing survey instruments on the handheld. These development tools allow for integration with SQL databases that are stored on the handheld and can be synchronized with a desktop/server based database. On the other hand, PDAs offer varying degrees of accessibility for people with differing abilities, based on the particular device and service. People with vision, hearing, mobility, and speech impairments may be able to use PDAs on a limited basis, and this may be enhanced by the addition of accessibility software (e.g. speech recognition for verbal input instead of manual input). Universal design is relevant to PDAs as well as other technology, and a viable solution for many user-access issues, though it has yet to be consistently integrated into the design of popular consumer PDA devices.


Additional features / functions that may appear in the device in the next 5 years.

The additional features or functions that may appear in the in the next five years will be a fingerprint and iris sensor for the user before they can access to the important information on their PDA. Not only that, a “invisible keyboard”- the keyboard panel will be projected thru laser beams and users can have the keyboard size that the normal desktop computer does without having to bring a bulky external keyboard and it will make the user much more comfortable as the characters available on the keyboard will not be as small and cramped like the external keyboard that is used now. PDA size and diameter of the PDA will be like paper thin and it will be much lighter than the weight of the PDA nowadays. There will also be a mini torchlight, panic alarm and pepper spray detached with the PDA for the safety of the user. The charging for the PDA in the next five years will be partially solar as it helps when the user forget to bring their charger when they are abroad or going out. The PDA will also be installed with a device that will locate the PDA if the PDA is lost by the user, and the user can find it back easily- this can only be used when the user make a police report for the lost of their PDA and the company will then help the user find it back.In the next five years,PDA can also emit the fragrance that the user wants by keying in the product code and the receipt number of the goods.- meaning that the PDA will be the portable fragrance bottle emitter to the user.

Personal reflection:-

I, as one of the group members find that the knowledge gained from this assignment is more than I can imagine as I cant believe that a tiny little PDA will have so many function that I cant imagine. Not only that, from this assignment I learned that PDA can do many things in one time just like the mighty huge computer or laptops that we have at home. Not only that, this assignment also strengthen and providing more information to me towards the technologies that is used by the human now as I used to be an idiot in terms of the latest technology. With the progress of the technology every second, I believe that the knowledge for this device will be much greater than the old days and I hope that the PDA that we will use in the future will be much greater than what we have now because I believe that man will improve, so do the technology.

Personal Reflection:-

After completing this assignment which is on Personal Digital Assistant (PDA), I get to understand more about PDA and its history from the day I was first invented until today. PDA is an innovative creation from the combination of smart phone with computer technology. With this combination, it is more powerful to the user as it provides convenience in one handheld device. From this assignment, I have also learnt on how PDA is evolving from time to time to adapt to human demand and added more advanced technology. Generally, PDA is sort of “small computer” as it has computer software installed in it. It can perform office works, media player, Web browsing with its Internet-enabled function and more. PDA differ from the normal mobile phones as it has more added function where it is a sort of personal organizer that help to perform a lot of different tasks. Today, most of the current computer’s famous companies like Acer, Hewlett-Packard (HP), Ben-Q and others are producing different kind of PDAs besides desktop computers and laptops. However, I have learnt that the most important function of PDA is synchronizing data with a PC. This allows up-to-date contact information stored on software such as Microsoft Outlook or ACT! to update the database on the PDA. The data synchronization ensures that the PDA has an accurate list of contacts, appointments and e-mail, allowing users to access the same information on the PDA as the host computer. The synchronizing also prevents the loss of information stored on the device in case it is lost, stolen, or destroyed. Another advantage is that data input is usually a lot quicker on a PC, since text input via a touch screen is still not quite optimal. Transferring data to a PDA via the computer is therefore a lot quicker than having to manually input all data on the handheld device. Most PDAs come with the ability to synchronize to a PC. This is done through synchronization software provided with the handheld, such as HotSync Manager, which comes with Palm OS handhelds, Microsoft ActiveSync for older versions of Windows or Windows Mobile Device Center on Windows Vista, which comes with Windows Mobile handhelds. These programs allow the PDA to be synchronized with a Personal Information Manager. This personal information manager may be an outside program or a proprietary program. For example, the BlackBerry PDA comes with the Desktop Manager program which can synchronize to both Microsoft Outlook and ACT!. Other PDAs come only with their own proprietary software. For example, some early Palm OS PDAs came only with Palm Desktop while later Palms such as the Treo 650 has the built-in ability to synchronize to Palm Desktop and/or Microsoft Outlook, while Microsoft's ActiveSync and Windows Mobile Device Center only synchronize with Microsoft Outlook or a Microsoft Exchange server.
I, In as one of the group member for this assignment admit that during the beginning of the assignment, I don’t understand what are the functions, usage and the characteristics of the mobile device that we have choose for our assignment which is the PDA, and this make our assignment harder to do, but thru this assignment I learn a lot of information about the PDA, the technology of the PDA, the great invention of these technology that enable us to do a assignment about it.

Friday, July 18, 2008

Define and explain the concept of marketing

Define and explain the concept of marketing. Discuss the benefits and problems that an organization of your choice would encounter when practicing marketing. Provide recommendations on how your organization can improve its marketing activities

The concept of marketing

According to Philip Kotler, marketing is a social process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating and exchanging products and values with others. In boarder term, marketing is the analysis, planning, implementation, and control of carefully formulated programs designed to bring about voluntary exchanges of values with target markets for the purpose of achieving organizational objectives. It relies heavily on designing the organization’s offering in terms of the target markets’ needs and desires, and on using effective pricing, communication, and distribution to inform, motivate, and service the markets. (Philip Kotler)
The main key points of marketing are as follows:
Managerial Process involving analysis, planning and control.
Carefully formulated programs and not just random actions.
Voluntary exchange of values; no use of force or coercion. Offer benefits.
Selection of Target Markets rather than a quixotic attempt to win every market and be all things to all men.
Purpose of marketing is to achieve Organizational Objectives. For commercial sector it is profit. For non-commercial sector, the objective is different and must be specified clearly.
Marketing relies on designing the organization’s offering in terms of the target market’s needs and desires rather than in terms of seller’s personal tastes or internal dynamics. User-oriented and not seller-oriented.
Marketing utilizes and blends a set of tools called the marketing mix – product design, pricing, distribution and communication. Too often marketing is equated either with just advertising or with just personal selling.
In marketing, it is always assume that it needs some selling. But the aim of marketing is to make selling superfluous. The aim of marketing is to know and understand the customer so well that the product or service fits him and sells itself. Ideally, marketing should result in a customer who is ready to buy. All that should be needed then is to make the product or service available. (Peter Drucker). Examples: Sony’s Walkman, Nintendo’s superior video game
Marketing includes selling but should be preceded by needs assessment, marketing research, product development, pricing and distribution. Selling focuses on products, aggressive selling and sales promotion with emphasis on price variations to close the sale. Maximize profits through sales volume. Marketing focus on customer needs. Integrated marketing plan encompassing product, price, promotion and distribution, backed up by adequate environmental scanning, consumer research, and opportunity analysis with emphasis on service. Maximize profits through increased customer satisfaction and hence raise market share. The marketing concept is a consumers’ needs orientation backed by integrated marketing aimed at generating consumer satisfaction as the key to satisfying organizational goals. A human need is a state of felt deprivation of some basic satisfaction. (Food, clothing, shelter, safety, belonging, esteem etc.) Abraham Maslow noticed that some needs take precedence over others. They are physiological needs, safety and security needs, love and belonging needs and esteem needs. Human wants are desires for specific satisfiers of these deeper needs. Demands are wants for specific products that are backed by an ability and willingness to buy them. Value and satisfaction can be as follows:

The benefits and problems that an organization would encounter when practicing marketing

The organization can practicing marketing by new product development and development of marketing planning are the most important tools. The study describes the benefits and problems of new product development in the organization when practicing marketing. In second phase it describes development of marketing plan when practice marketing in a organization. There seems to be widespread belief that marketing plays or should play a significant role in the early development of products and that it is combined with other areas of expertise (e.g., industrial design) to address critical user product interaction issues. It is well established that marketing has a critical role in the product development process, particularly in the early. Even so, there is disagreement with respect to the roles of marketing and customer research as well as the importance of various inputs into the new product development process. Listening carefully to customers is among the primary reasons companies are led astray in their decision-making concerning pursuit of new product development opportunities.
Although marketing plays an important role in the development of most products, its role with respect to the design of discontinuous or radical new products still is not understood fully. Further, while there is evidence that innovation in general may involve significant inputs from marketing, evidence of the applicability of such findings to the domain of radical innovation has been mixed. Discontinuous products, which involve unprecedented performance features and creating new lines of business, often are developed in a context of extremely high market uncertainty. As a result, for these types of products it can be difficult for marketing to provide input and direction before a general product application has been established. Beyond this, questions remain concerning the role of customer input and market research in discontinuous new product development as well as the relationships between market researchers and other key disciplines (e.g., ID, R&D) involved in the development of these types of products. The development of discontinuous new products involves a process that is different from more conventional new product development particularly as it concerns the roles of marketing. For these types of products, attention to marketing and customer/user-interface issues tended to occur later in the process. Here, key aspects of discontinuous innovation, grouped according to conceptual relatedness, are shown in terms of how they relate to marketing.
There are several guidelines concerning managerial action in the development of discontinuous new products. First, in this development context marketing and industrial design importance and involvement is determined in large part by the degree of discontinuity of the product. Issues such as the uncertainty of suitable applications for the technology and the greater distance from the market in terms of time and customer familiarity with the product seem to affect the nature of the development process. The result is a shift in the timing and nature of the roles of marketing. Customer research plays in this context offers an opportunity to provide more meaningful and valid inputs into the development process for these radical new products. Activities (e.g., marketing activities) associated with the development of less radical new products are rarely possible and often are not constructive during the very early development of discontinuous new products. In this development context it is not so much that marketing and customer research techniques are inappropriate but rather that the techniques are not applied with sufficient sensitivity to the context surrounding discontinuous innovation. The challenge is to create a valid context for collecting information so as to avoid unduly discouraging innovation. One of the ways to accomplish this is to move toward adaptive co-development in which the process moves iteratively back and forth between product developers and beta test customers. Although this work suggests marketing’s role in discontinuous innovation often is focused more on testing and validation than on idea generation, this should not be taken as meaning that the marketing challenge is reduced in this context. If anything, the challenge for marketing managers may be even greater for discontinuous products since, at some point, key design assumptions must be examined and since conducting useful and valid research to do this can be quite difficult. Additionally, managers need to build links throughout the project team to ensure that the research that is carried out is conducted properly. Optimally, this would entail at least some marketing involvement with research conducted by or for a development team regardless of who conducts the study. This can help a development team to avoid unfortunate, if not disastrous, consequences. For example, in one case a project team spent a considerable amount of time and resources addressing aspects of a product that they thought based on a cursory customer study conducted by R&D team members would be of vital concern to customers.
The relevance, and indeed usefulness, of marketing theory in today’s business environment is increasingly open to question. This general skepticism has led to a progressive emphasis on how to translate marketing theory into effective marketing practice which has taken many forms, ranging from traditional management education in business and universities, to action learning programmes and to government led and sponsored local enterprise initiatives. This paper concentrate specifically on the difficulties surrounding the implementation of one of marketing’s core tools, the marketing plan as outlined by McDonald (1989). How the development of marketing planning competencies through a work-based learning programme can help a practicing manager to overcome many of the problems of its application in practice. This approach incorporates the building of marketing planning competencies in conjunction with the actual workload of the participant to construct a work based programme in which the learning is a continuous two way flow between academia and the workplace.
The recent and well-documented crisis of confidence in the marketing discipline has to a large extent centred on the lack of applicability of marketing theory to marketing practice. Marketing myths perpetuated by academics for encouraging “death-wish” marketing amongst practitioners. Basic tools and tenets of marketing management theory are being doubted and their relevance for the modern business questioned. Consumer behaviour as a theoretical black hole, calling for a new paradigm which seeks less to control consumers and more to understand them; and many believe that the marketing concept itself is essentially flawed. Moreover, this general disillusionment with the inability of marketing theory to match corporate realities has also been evidenced from within the business community. Many nonacademic voices, for example, senior business people, consultants and journalists, are listened to in preference to marketing academics. Free ling (1994) has drawn our attention to chief executives who are claiming that marketing is no longer capable of driving profitable growth and who accuse marketers of not understanding the economics of the business or of different channels of distribution. There is a large gap between the classical role of profitable marketing and how marketing is practiced by marketing departments within 100 blue chip organizations. They go as far as to describe the marketing department as “critically ill” and in need of urgent treatment, warning that the winning companies will not have “ivory tower marketers”. In seeking to redress this balance between marketing theory and marketing practice it is the marketing concept itself which has tended to receive the most attention from academics. This has been in terms of its development, extension and refinement as, for example, witnessed by the recent proliferation of relationship marketing literature. The marketing plan, which ideally should be the bridge between theory (the marketing concept) and practice (the functions of marketing), has received much less attention in terms of its basic operability in the hands of the practitioner. Yet, arguably, this is where a firm will have the most difficulty inputting theory into practice
The idea that company performance improves as a consequence of engaging in a planning process and applying well known marketing decision making techniques has not proved easy to confirm conclusively. In the United States and the United Kingdom, practitioners perceived marketing decision-making techniques to be of little value to them in helping to make key marketing planning decisions. In a review of the marketing planning literature states that the claimed benefits of better co-ordination of interrelated activities, improved environmental awareness, better communication among management and better use of resources, and so on, appear to be there for the taking and there is a strong relationship between marketing planning and commercial success.
The problems that can encounter when practicing marketing are given below:
(1) Confusion between marketing strategy and tactics.
(2) Isolation of marketing function from business operations.
(3) Confusion between marketing function and marketing concept.
(4) Prevailing organizational structures along functional lines.
(5) Lack of skills in in-depth analysis.
(6) Confusion between process and output.
(7) Lack of core marketing management knowledge and skills.
(8) Lack of a disciplined, systematic approach to marketing planning.
(9) Need to prioritize objectives.
(10) Need for a more appropriate marketing culture.
The challenge to practitioner, therefore, is to find ways to begin to close the practice gap in respect of these marketing planning barriers. It is suggested here that a competency based approach might provide a solution, although caution that any solution must go beyond the development of competencies which merely address the application of marketing techniques. Therefore, what is required is a specifically tailored approach that develops a range of core skills that enable the development of a total marketing planning competency. We outline how a work-based learning programme can effectively address this challenge.

The recommendations to improve marketing activities

The organization can improve its marketing activities by develop the key marketing planning competencies of knowledge, experience, analytical skills, leadership, vision, judgement, organizational ability, commitment and communication.
(1) Knowledge: The transfer of marketing knowledge is communicating in a jargon-free way. Emerging themes of success were used to illustrate how areas of weakness might be overcome. At the same time, introduced core marketing concepts.
(2) Experience: Experiment with the new knowledge as it accumulated in order to see what worked in improving day-to-day marketing practice.
(3) Analytical skills: Core analytical tools such as the SWOT analysis, product/market matrix
(4) Leadership: Problems of employee motivation and the team building required to bring about a company-wide integration of the marketing concept were frequently raised through regular group discussions.
(5) Vision: The maintenance of an opportunity focus is crucial for the development of marketing and is inherent in the very nature of planning. Vision is required to determine how aims and objectives will be realized through action plans and the marshalling of scarce resources.
(6) Judgement: The focus of this was to develop an ability in gathering together disparate pieces of often incomplete information and making effective choices. Judgement as a competency is acquired through there cognition of the value of experience. The review process as an integral part of marketing planning forced to assess the effect of marketing actions to date.
(7) Organizational ability: The challenge here was to develop the ability to marshal and manage resources to fully maximize the value of opportunities in the marketplace. Such resources included human, physical and financial assets. Typical examples of these are the development of action plans and time schedules, the allocation of inter-functional responsibilities, the planning and scheduling of resources and the establishment of effective control mechanisms. The emphasis throughout was to maintain the holistic perspective so essential to the workplace.
(8) Commitment: increasingly committed to the value and importance of the planning process to their individual companies.
(9) Communication: The ability to communicate effectively was integral to every aspect.
In addition, the internal and external focus of planned marketing activities served to refine communication skills, in particular through the development of their company’s promotional mix. The company should encourage formalising the communications management of industry contacts such as suppliers, customers, support agencies, distributors and so forth. There is no doubting the value of marketing planning to the effective development of any business. In spite of this, practicing managers encounter all sorts of difficulties with the marketing planning process.